Nicanora washingtonia (Washingtonia filifera) – monocotyledonous plant of the family of Palm. In natural conditions it grows in southern United States, in Mexico, on the Absheron Peninsula, on the southern shore of the Crimea on the Black sea coast South of Sochi. As an indoor or greenhouse plant palm popular across the world and in Russia including. Palm growing in natural conditions, can withstand short periods of temperatures down to -12 degrees.
The name of the plant was named after the first U.S. President George Washington, but it's mainly of use only to specialists – botanists. For the rest of the world's population – this is a common palm tree growing in warm countries. The genus Vashingtonii applies to two species: washingtonia washingtonia powerful and nicanora, which differ from each other different tinge of petioles. Washingtonia powerful they are brown, and Nittenau – gray-green.
So Washingtonia nicanora – tree, in natural conditions it grows up to 15-20 meters. The trunk is rounded, cylindrical, with a diameter of 1 meter at the bottom, tapering gradually upwards. The petioles of the fallen leaves remain on the trunk forming a strong, rigid scales. Potted palm washingtonia grows not more than 2-3 metres in height.
The leaves of the fan palm, up to 4 metres, green or grey-green in colour, leaf plate cut into 1/3, 80-90 segments. In the middle segments of long, to one and a half meters at the edges up to 60-80 cm On the edges of the leaves are thin, twisted white threads, which palm called filamentous or Nittenau.
The leaf cuttings of the same length as the leaf plates at the bottom have sharp thorns, curved to the trunk. For season 12-13 palm tree grows leaves that live 3-4 years, and then fall off.
Blooms of filamentous Palma paniculate inflorescences up to 5 cm, with white, bisexual flowers. After the flowers formed fruit oblong drupe up to 1 cm Drupe black or dark brown, shiny seeds inside her small, oval.
In its natural habitat of palm trees, from its seeds make flour, and the stalks eaten raw or cooked. Of leaves and yarn weave baskets, mats and other household items.
Washingtonia Nittenau rarely contain as flower room – its cultivation requires a lot of space, light and cool winter temperatures. To create such conditions in the usual city apartment difficult, so often a palm tree can be seen in the lobbies of public buildings, or in the spacious mansions of the wealthy.
For the cultivation of trees requires a well-lit, spacious room is light-loving southern plant that can get sick from lack of sunlight. In addition, at any time of the year it needed fresh air, without which it suffers in the same way as without light.
The lack of light and fresh air in the house or Conservatory compensate for artificial lighting and conditioning. To illuminate the palm tree can be a fluorescent light or a special fitolamp – the pot is rotated around the axis so that the light fell on the leaves evenly. Light Palma need for 15-16 hours a day.
Summer pot or planter stand in the street or on the balcony, and the first time, shade from strong sun. Shading is gradually removed, allowing the plant to absorb more sunlight.
Palm does not tolerate damp, lingering in the damp and cool weather it is better to bring home in a room with humidity in the range of 55-75%. If the humidity is below these figures, and in the winter indoors and summer outdoors, palm, additionally spray or wipe leaves with a damp cloth.
The optimum temperature for growing washingtonia will be 20-28 degrees in the summer and 5-10 degrees in the winter. A period of rest in a cool room is necessary for the plant to recuperate after an active growth in summer, or it will perish from exhaustion. Winter "vacation" palm needs to spend in the bright, but cool room.
Washingtonia prefers moderate watering.
Washingtonia prefers moderate watering, it is equally harmful and waterlogging and overdrying of soil. Particular caution should be watered a palm tree in the period of winter dormancy, at this time watering is carried out only after full drying of the topsoil. But in the summer to prevent waterlogging and stagnation of water in the pot or tub is not, the drainage system should be mandatory.
In spring and summer washingtonia fed every two weeks with mineral fertilizers of the type Akvarin, Kemira-Suite, bona Forte, Pocono. Fall feeding is carried out 1 time per month, and in winter they stopped altogether.
Transplant young trees do every year – in spring, Mature plants can be transplanted once in 3-4 years, or simply replace part of the soil fresh. The plants are transplanted method of handling, together with the ground.
So the soil mix is prepared independently from turf, humus and leaf soil, with added sand. The mixture should have a slightly alkaline reaction. For planting trees can be purchased ready of fertile soils "For dracaena", "palms" And "Yucca"
The side shoots have vashingtonii do not develop, so it is propagated through seeds. For sowing seeds, prepare a mixture of sand, sphagnum moss and peat in the proportions of 1x1x1, suitable compost or loam. The soil mixture is heated in the oven or microwave.
The washingtonia palm tree from seed.
Before boarding the handling of seeds – they are treated with special drugs to stimulate growth. In the ground seeds are buried shallowly – no more than 1 cm if the room is cool, container crops covered glass or plastic jar, plastic bag. Germination should take place at temperatures below 25 degrees.
The soil for growing palm trees from seed should be neither dry nor too wet, as well as for adult plants.
In good conditions the first seedlings from seeds will appear after 10-15 days, for the year the seedlings grow to 4-5 leaves. Since the roots of the trees grow deep, seedlings at the age of 2-3 months you will need to repot into a deep pot to hold the next transplant in a year.