What you can and cannot put in the compost?
What to put in the compost?
Each owner having a house or house plot, definitely distinguishes the place resets all waste: vegetable garden, garden, kitchen, household, animals, including room etc. Peregrina, they form compost. The more diverse the composition of the waste, the better the quality of the resulting compost. But there is one condition for composting select only healthy plant material. Otherwise, the compost turns «dirty» and in need of disinfection from disease, clearing from weeds, destroy pests. It turns out that you can’t put in the compost pile, weeds and diseased fruits and plants? Can. But in this case with the compost need further work.
What is compost? What to put in the compost?
Compost is a concentrate of humus or fermented organic matter. Making compost in two ways: aerobic and anaerobic. In the first method (aerobic) compost heap is placed loosely (not sealed). It every day or you need to shovel. A large influx of oxygen into porous biomaterial promotes faster fermentation.
If the compost material is not cleared, the compost turns «dirty» and often the distribution of diseases and weeds. Weed seeds and fungal spores and other diseases do not die in the short period of its maturation.
The second method (anaerobic) is more time-consuming, but allows you to maintain a greater number of required plants of valuable nutrients. Thus in a compost pile, you can lay more varied, including coarse organic material (dry thick branches, large chips, roots, etc.), which increases the value of the fertilizer.
In the second method, the components of a well-tamped, on the contrary, reducing the access of air. Unlike the first method, do not need frequent shoveling the contents of the heap. The temperature in the heap/in the compost heap is maintained at +20…+30 °C. But under these conditions weed seeds and spores of fungal diseases are not killed.
What can be placed in the compost, so it was «clean»?
In a compost heap you can add one kind or a mixture of household waste that is recycled by soil microorganisms into nutrients available to plants. The greater the diversity of waste, the richer and better the compost.
A large number of one type of waste generates depleted compost. This slurry disturbed the balance of carbon and nitrogen (a very important elements for plant), is missing a large number of other elements necessary for normal plant development.
When excess carbon (large branches, thick stems, peppers, eggplant, dry bark, etc.), the composting process slows down, until evaporate excess carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. In this case, the period of composting is extended. When excess nitrogen (which are rich in leaves, herbs, vegetables, fruits, leftover food, etc.) it disappears from the compost and the losses can be up to 30%.
The more varied the ingredients the more nutrients will be compost. What to put in the compost?
For a clean composting use:
- wood waste – branches, chips, shavings, sawdust, roots, bark and pieces of wood but not stained with oil and other paints; they are used in compost pit as drainage and the cultivator (to drain excess water and increase airflow);
- grass clippings, cabbage leaves without signs of fungal and other diseases, healthy carrot tops and beet, aerial part with peppers and eggplant (healthy);
- fruit drops fruit and vegetables (healthy);
- the manure of domestic animals, which, on the one hand, is a ready-made fertilizer, and with another — serves as a warming ingredient that accelerates the process of decomposition of other wastes;
- kitchen waste, except food waste, which was meat and dairy products;
- edible mushrooms (perestarki, wormy), the eggs of domestic birds;
- waste paper (napkins and paper towels, cardboard single layer).
What waste cannot be used to «clean» composting?
Can not be put in the compost pile the tops of potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers. Most of them by the end of summer massively affected by late blight and other fungal diseases, the spores which remain viable for a long time and when hit in favorable conditions (the soil) to infect plants.
Cannot be used in compost rotten apples (scab hawkers), the fallen plums, cherries, cherries, peaches, apricots, grapes. Their smell, they attract rodents. In addition, fruit and grapeseed decompose very slowly, but the young shoots form quickly, turning the compost pile, in thickets of new weeds.
It is impossible to lay compost weeds with seeds and roots. Seeds, even immature flowers and blossoms ripen in the soil retain their viability and compost sown in the field. What to put in the compost?
Be put in the compost grass with tenacious roots (rhizomatous, weed forming), which in partial perepletenie remain viable.
In addition, not in the compost to add:
- the bones of animals and fish (attract rodents);
- moldy bread (the mold can get into the soil and infect horticultural plants);
- the weeds, which got rid of using herbicides (undecomposed residues of pesticides, contaminants of the soil);
- multilayer laminated cardboard, painted wood, glossy paper with color printing, plastic and plastic waste (the compost can be put only organic waste);
- the feces of Pets and the contents of the cat trays (in the waste can be dangerous to the health of children and adults parasites-Toxoplasma).
All of these ingredients and some others that we might not mentioned in this list, shall be destroyed. They are better burned and the ash used as fertilizer. Plastic and materials containing heavy metals are disposed of separately.
How to make «dirty» compost clean?
If a compost heap dump all the waste, including those from the «black list». The compost turns «dirty» and in need of disinfection.
The most acceptable method of disinfection and purification of compost from pests — «hot» composting. With this method, the compost pile needs fresh manure or material containing large amount of nitrogen. The allocation of excess nitrogen in the form of ammonia causes a «warming» effect.
Stirring the ingredients every 3-4 days to increase the access of oxygen, sufficient moisture supply (60%), promote a very rapid raising of the temperature inside the compost pile to +65…+75 °C. In these conditions killed the seeds of weeds, spores of fungal diseases, helminth eggs, larvae of pests. At the same time dies and most of beneficial and pathogenic microflora.
With the end of «burnout» excess «warming» ingredients, the temperature of heap/compost pile drops to +20…+25 °C. From this time stirred the compost pile at least – 12-14 days. There is a normal process of fermentation.
For the restoration of positive microflora of moisture a compost pile can be carried out working solutions of the drug Baikal EM-1 or other.