Planting and caring Gladiolus.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Plants bulbotuberiferous – a mandatory attribute of any flower garden. Among them, elongated leaves and «flowers» the fine flowers is easy to learn gladioli (gladiolus). Planting and caring outdoors requires certain skills, a good choice of bulbs and the landing place, of compliance with all requirements of farming.

When to plant gladiolus in the open ground

Plant gladioli in the open ground in spring. Their corms are sensitive to low temperatures, so it needs to warm up to 8-15 degrees, which roughly occurs in late April – early may. It is in this temperature range is actively growing root system of gladiolus. Formed a larger bulb that promotes abundant flowering. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

More precisely, the timing of planting is determined on the basis of the climatic characteristics of the region:

  1. In the southern regions start planting in late April.
  2. On the suburbs and the Middle lane waiting until mid-may, when the threat passes the return of frost.
  3. In areas with cold protracted spring planting begins in late may.

Sometimes gardeners planted the bulbs in late may — early June to get a later flowering. This shift of time weakens the plant: when the soil warms up more than 18 degrees, the vegetative part faster developing root system.

The selection of varieties

Gladiolus, or gladiolus belongs to family Iridaceae. In nature, this bulbotuberiferous perennial plant found in subtropical and tropical parts of the Mediterranean, Africa and partly Asia. The stems of gladiolus single, dense, can reach 150 cm Leaves are long, up to 80 cm; linear or ensiform, acuminate, clamp around the stem. Flowers sessile, perianth funnel-shaped with six petals of different shapes and sizes, collected in spicate inflorescence.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

The genus includes about 200 species:

 

  • the structure of the inflorescence gladioli are divided into loose, tight and sredneplotnyh;
  • and the arrangement of buds on a unilateral, bilateral, spiral and spike;
  • the timing of flowering for the early, middle and late; the time from planting to appearance of flower buds, respectively, can vary from 75 to 90 days.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Distinguish between the gladiolus and the shape and size of flower, colour of the petals. Through the efforts of breeders, the modern gardener there are many bright and original varieties.

Some cultivated wild species: marsh, imbricate, Kochi. They are more hardy; the petals are painted in pink, purple, purple.

In Siberia often found on the natural beds of gladiolus Byzantine: tonkostey, low, with purplish-crimson flowers, with white stripe extending on vein of the lower petals. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

The gardens are most often found artificially bred hybrids:

  1. Colville – early flowering hybrid with medium-sized flowers of white, crimson or pinkish. The stem reaches 90 cm.
  2. Harlem – stems short, frail. Peak flowering occurs at the beginning of the summer; range of color is wide.
  3. Dwarf – Dutch hybrid that grows up to 40 cm long Petals often bright colors, with fancy dark spots in the middle.
  4. The tubergen angustifolia Dutch hybrid, grows up to 75 cm.

The most popular varieties of gladioli:

  1. Gladiolus Mombasa – large dark purple flowers, loose «ears». Blooms in July – September.
  2. Peter pierce is tall, up to 110 cm, a hybrid pale salmon color with reddish-orange brush strokes on the two lower petals, reddish neck.
  3. Nova Lux – tall, up to 120 cm, with large, up to 18 cm flowers. Petals tone: bright yellow in center, paler towards the edges.
  4. White prosperity – stem up to 110 cm, the flowers are lightly ruffled, white with a reddish throat.
  5. Jester – tall, the flowers are ruffled, bright yellow, with a reddish-crimson napechatana on the lower two petals.
  6. Priscilla – large soft creamy-pink ruffled flowers with crimson edge and yellow throat.

Chinese stands out the gladiolus, which is also called Japanese, montbretia or crocosmia. Leaves narrow, ensiform, acuminate; peduncles may reach 1.5 m in height. Inflorescence, in contrast to the majority of gladioli, paniculate, the flowers are star-shaped, sometimes funnel-shaped, with elongated bent outward graceful petals. It blooms from July to September. Based on crocosmia displayed a few hybrids, for example, hardy and floriferous of Masonorum and Lucifer.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Step by step instructions on planting gladiolus in open ground

The cultivation of gladioli in the open field requires careful preparation of soil and planting material. Planting gladioli without the implementation of all agrotechnical requirements or bad choice of location would nullify all the efforts of care – flowering will be poor and short.

What colors gladioli are combined on a bed

Gladioli in landscape design is used very carefully. The abundance of large bright flowers creates a sense of alapitasi, other colors fade into the background, bringing the whole composition loses its expressiveness. The task of the gardener – harmony «fit» gladiolus, mindful of the short duration of its flowering. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

A tall stalk of gladiolus tend to cover low-growing plants with lush shrubs and different flowering periods. In group planting take into account the colors of gladioli; do not combine with small-flowered grandiflora to the latter does not looked like losing. To shade a bright accent on the background of flower beds with gladioli are used conifers or other large decorative foliage crops, for example, the spirea or barberry.

Surround gladioli can be daffodils or tulips, Phlox, peonies, marigolds, a lion’s throat; they’re a good neighbor with asters, oregano, sage. Low-growing varieties of gladioli can be used to design the curb and the tracks.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Site selection and soil

As any resident of a South African Prairie, gladiolus picky about the lighting level. This is especially true postnecrotic varieties that do not tolerate shade, so planting, choose Sunny areas. In the southern regions allowed partial shade in the afternoon.

Gladioli are not planted in the lowlands, as their tubers during waterlogging begin to rot. If a better place to land with no organized drainage and channels to drain stagnant water. It is desirable to protect them from the winds, as high stalks can polegate with strong gusts.

Soil for roses should be slightly acidic, loamy or sandy, well-drained and aerated. Black soil is loosened acidic peat. Gladiolus does not require much nitrogen, so it grows well after garlic, onions, strawberries.

Prepare the place before planting

Site preparation planting bulbs gladioli is carried out in several stages. Autumn dug to 2 of the bayonet, closing up the compost or humus. If necessary, the soil «ennoble»: add clay, sand or peat, depending on which of the components is not enough. Spread over the area slowly soluble phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, such as superphosphate.

In the spring, before planting gladioli in the open ground. The second time dug up the ground, this time with a bayonet spade, carefully choosing the roots of the weeds. Parallel to make NPK. The clods of earth loosened and leveled with a rake. If the plot is hollow, and arrange drainage channels or high beds.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

The choice and preparation of planting material before planting

Corms of gladioli are easy to learn, they are rounded, flattened vertically; painted in pinkish or yellowish color. The bottom is slightly concave. At the top of the smooth and shiny scales. Depending on the species, they can be cream, Golden, pinkish or reddish. Diameter, depending on age, ranges from 1.5 to 3.5 cm

Quality bulbs gladiolus – the key to abundant flowering. A healthy corm should be firm, elastic and shiny, without mechanical damage, dark spots and signs of fungal diseases. The bottom should not be too concave or flat. It says «advanced» age of gladiolus, which means he has already exhausted his reserve, could not ascend or weak flowering. The bulbs are over 4 years old more likely to die from fungal diseases. Preference is given to planting material of medium size, about 2-3 cm. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

By April on the bulb is to be formed is small, about 3 mm, root tubercles are light in color. Their brownish hue says about fungal diseases. At the same time begins to hatch a Central Rostock. If the bulb a few germs, from purchasing it should be abandoned.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Directly before planting the bulbs should be carefully cleaned of scales, otherwise they will not germinate. Extra sprouts if they are, gently break. The wound sprinkled with crushed charcoal. Leave the most powerful, it is usually located at the center. It should not be longer than 10 cm.

The bulbs are not planted without sprouts. Germinated gladiolus, putting the stems down, in a dry warm place, a bright but protected from direct sunlight. For extra stimulation for a few hours soaked in a solution of Alpin or Kornevina.

Another required step is the processing of planting material of gladiolus before planting. Recommend half an hour to soak the bulbs in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In the presence of dark spots, dents their not cut with a sharp kitchen knife to healthy tissue. Wound surface sprinkled with crushed charcoal, dried. For pre-treatment of such bulbs use a solution Fundazol or Topaz.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

How to plant gladiolus that they do not fall

Planting gladiolus is a painstaking process, influencing further development and flowering. The front of the work richly moisturize. Can be planted in the hole and the trench. On the bottom is placed a layer of sand, the bulb, cover with soil and moisten again. Mulch the beds with peat, sawdust or straw. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

The scheme of planting of gladiolus depends on the variety of features. When a string method between the tubers and leave for 7-10 cm, the distance between rows is 40 cm In female or carpet is kept in the interval 15-30 cm

It is important to calculate the planting depth of gladiolus bulbs to receive optimal amounts of minerals and moisture, does not overheat and was not rolled over on its side under the weight of high shoots.

Recessed planting contributes to the development of a strong root system, increases the flow of minerals to it and slows down the growth of the aerial parts. Accordingly, the penetration helps the gladioli do not fall during flowering, contributes to the development of more powerful shoots, larger buds, and pushes for a few weeks laying the buds. The latter is often used by growers to «force» the gladiolus to bloom by September.

On the other hand, with recessed landing increases the risk of fungal diseases, decreases the amount of klubnepochek. When surface planting gladioli formed more kids, and onions suffer less from infections. Shoots develop and bloom faster. At the same time the bulbs can overheat.  You will have less moisture and minerals which will lead to less intense coloration and reduced size of the inflorescence.

Planting depth also depends on soil composition, its mechanical properties, light intensity and climatic conditions, the size of the bulb. On light and air permeable sandy soils, which dry out faster, corms bury up to 12-15 cm In water-holding capacity loam, cultivated peat, the depth is reduced to 8-10 cm On heavy black soils, which are easy to breed fungal infections up to 7 cm.

In the southern regions with high light intensity and dry summer gladioli were forced to bury so the corm does not overheat in the upper soil layers and do not suffer from water starvation. The same is done in the steppe areas with frequent dry winds. In regions with protracted cool spring and rainy summer bulbs, on the contrary, «raise» up to 3-4 cm, so they are not rotted. High shoots are protected from the warp and the fall of the garter. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

Large planting material buried 2-3 cm deep. The same is done with large-flowered varieties. Another heavy flower stalks will begin to «tend» shoots to the ground, and the weak root system can’t keep gladiolus in a vertical position. If it is not possible to bury large-flowered gladioli, they definitely tie.

To properly plant a gladiolus, you need to consider all these factors and choose the «Golden mean».

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Planting gladioli in pot

Often you can find gladioli in pots on the street. Usually you have to choose varieties with short flower stems and compact buds. You can plant gladioli in pots, flowerpots, balcony boxes. The volume of containers choose from 6 to 10 l to give enough space for root development. At the bottom be sure to put a layer of expanded clay, crushed foam, or pebbles, make drainage holes.

The land should be nutritious, and at the same time loose, breathable and absorbent. The best is a mix of 4 parts leaf soil, 1 part loam, 1 part rotted compost, 1 part peat and 2 parts river sand. Onions prepare same as for planting in the open ground. Planted in the spring, in late March – early may. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

In the ground doing the planting hole, put them in the bulbs, covered, lightly tamped and watered abundantly. In the initial stages of development of gladiolus in pots need weekly treatments with a weak solution of fungicide. You can use biological agents, for example, fitosporin, or light pink solution of potassium permanganate. Before the air is warmed to 15-18 degrees, the capacity is kept in a heated room.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Care for a gladiolus after planting in open ground

Care after planting gladioli simple: you provide them with a suitable level of moisture and nutrients. The main attention growers pay to prevention of fungal diseases.

How to pour

Caring for a gladiolus, it is worth remembering that they are water-loving. Particularly difficult to tolerate the lack of water planted tubers. In may, while the roots of the first layer do not penetrate up to 40-45 cm deep, making sure the topsoil doesn’t dry out. Since the beginning of summer is enough to water once a week from the calculation of 15-20 liters per sq. m.

During budding, the need gladioli in the water increases again. The number of irrigations increased to 2-3 times a week, depending on weather conditions. Watered at the root, soft water pooled. To maintain moisture, tree trunks, the area covered with a layer of mulch thickness of 5 cm.

Fertilizing roses

For lush flowering and bright, saturated color of the petals of the gladiolus requires regular feeding.

Fertilizer for gladioli during the season, make three times:

  1. In the phase of 2-4 leaves, organic fertilizer for stimulation of a set of green mass. Use a weak solution of chicken (1:15) or horse (1:7) of manure. From cow or compost should be abandoned. It is possible to replace the organic mineral mixtures in the form of ammonium sulphate; they were distributed across the site, slightly closing up in the ground, at the rate of 25-30 g per sq. m.
  2. In the phase of 5-6 leaf it is desirable to feed gladioli for abundant flowering complex mineral fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus and potassium. For each m2 consume 50-60 g of a mixture.
  3. Their budding stage to flowering was draining the bulb, the gladiolus «help» phosphate-potassium fertilizers, e.g., superphosphate or potassium chloride. Consume 20 to 30 g per m2.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Loosening the soil, weeding and garter

After watering the flower beds with gladioli necessarily loosened to improve the permeability of the soil. Parallel to remove weeds – they can attract wireworms and become a source of fungal diseases. In phase 2-6 leaf gladioli few times Spud further provides the roots with oxygen and accelerates the development.

Gladioli are different unstable shoots, so it is desirable to tie up. This is especially true of large-and tall varieties. Use coarse mesh or customized backup. Garter belt make in June, before the distillation of the flower arrows.

Prophylaxis of skin diseases

The most common disease of gladiolus and bacterial scab, Fusarium rot and various. Bacterial scab lacquer spotting is manifested in the form of glossy spots on the corms. Most often found on loamy or peaty soils. The carrier of the disease is considered to be the wireworm. Minor lesions of the follicles can be saved by cutting out the damaged areas and disinfect them is heated to 55 degree water. The wound is closed with molten paraffin.

Fusarium is the main beach of gladioli. In the early stages of the disease cannot be detected, the bulbs do not differ from healthy. Actively develop Fusarium begins after the landing, infecting the soil and healthy plants. First, change the color of the base of the stem, then the leaves turn yellow gladioli. Infected plants immediately removed and destroyed outside of the site; save the bulb impossible. The earth and the rest gladioli several times with an interval of a week is treated with systemic fungicides.

Often late in the season on leaves and stems appear brown spots – that is Botrytis or brown rot. The disease occurs in a latent form, and after stains to help the gladiolus is impossible. Prevention since July planting twice a month treat with copper sulfate or copper oxychloride. Black dry rot is another dangerous disease that affects the vascular system. Manifested in the initial stages of growth fully browned leaf plates. Progresses rapidly and treatment can not be. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

Cause fungal diseases are disorders of farming: excessive moisture, heavy soil, lack of sand. For prevention it is important to monitor the mechanical properties and the acidity of the soil, to observe the rotation. Land regularly cultivated, moderately watered, avoiding waterlogging or drying out. During the season, the plants are sprayed regularly with fungicides.

Among the major pests, damaging the gladiolus is the thrips and wireworms, bulb mites. Thrips live under the scales of the corms for the winter. Because of the reddish color of the females it is difficult to notice, and after the landing they are beginning to lay eggs at the base of the leaves. The affected part of the gladiolus pale and dry. To combat the parasite is sufficient for 2-3 treatments of any systemic insecticide, for example, Acharei or Fufanonom.

The wireworm damage not only the tubers, but also carries the threat of fungal diseases. He prefers weedy areas with dense ground. The only way to get rid of this pest, regular weeding and hoeing. Sometimes planting gladioli attack slugs. To get rid of them, avoiding waterlogged and dense planting. Onion mite attacks gladiolus after landing in the bottom. Notice the traces of his «activities» only after digging the corms at rotten brownish roots. From the affected plants, the leaves are twisted, and the flowers become smaller. Infected bulbs emit. The only way of prevention – crop rotation.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

How to properly cut the flower

Gladiolus is considered to be both cut culture, its flowers are long standing in vases, revealing the buds. The flower stalks can not cut, do to the bulb has stored enough nutrients, and gave more children.

The arrow is removed, when it will be revealed the first 2-3 flower. When cutting try to keep as many leaves. Acute narrow knife to pierce the stem is 5-8 on sheet, cut as long as it is not separated from the sheet outlet. Better to do it early morning or late evening. The top few buds pinch, then the gladioli bloom in the vase longer. Planting and caring Gladiolus.

When to dig gladioli

Dig up gladiolus for the winter is necessary. Even hardy varieties left in the soil, quickly «run wild». So when planning flower beds stay to close to the gladiolus was not plants that will interfere with cleaning.

 

Dig the bulbs no later than mid-September, 35-45 days after flowering. It is important to do this before the start of the rainy season, to avoid fungal diseases. The stem is cut at the base shears. Then dig up the bulbs, being careful not to damage them with a shovel, cut the roots and give a little to dry.

Prepare bulbs for storage

Shake the bulbs from the ground, cut off the roots and separated children. Then they are washed under running water, treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dried in a dark ventilated place for several days.

Stored in cardboard boxes with ventilation holes, a few times a month turning the corms on the other side. Peat or sawdust does not fall asleep. You can cover the paper. The optimal temperature during the rest period – 10 degrees. So a box placed in a cellar or the vegetable Department of the refrigerator. In February, the corms can be sprinkled with a solution of Kornevina to prepare gladioluses for planting in the spring. Kids are kept the same, but lower, around 5-6 degrees, temperatures.

Planting and caring Gladiolus. Photo care instructions

Reproduction of gladioli

Gladioli bulbs are renewed each season. But quickly get old and after 4 years of living can not maintain a full bloom. For reproduction more often used kids gladioli. In the autumn after digging is taken very large, at least 1.5 cm in diameter, and store the bulbs. In the spring before planting purified from the scales, can be disinfected in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate. As adults gladioli, germinated when necessary.

Apart from planted corms tape method at a distance of 5-7 cm, leaving 10-15 cm between the grooves. Planting depth – 2-2. 5 cm Planting be sure to mulch. As caring for older plants. When the stalks they break down. To «grow» to a full bulb clujnapoca need 2 years.

It is possible to propagate gladiolus and seeds. This method is mainly used for breeding purposes. Begin to sow the seeds in mid-March in separate containers. Use a mixture of peat and sand, closing up to a depth of 1-1,5 see Greenhouse conditions for germination is not necessary, as swordplay. In late may, the seedlings put a little soil  in the garden before the fall. By September they are growing klubnepochki, which is calibrated and stored until next spring. Planted seeds gladiolus «grow» to bloom for 3-4 year.

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