Growing rosemary outdoors, the rules of care
Rosemary is valued universally; it is used in cooking, cosmetics and traditional medicine. Regular use of this plant as a condiment strengthens the immune system and prevent the development of some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, rosemary is grown outdoors for decorative purposes. An elegant evergreen shrub is the perfect complement to flower beds and flower beds. So let’s investigate how to growing rosemary outdoors.
This evergreen perennial, common in the Mediterranean and some parts of Europe. For growth in the open field he needs mild winters, bright light and a moderate amount of moisture. So often in nature rosemary settles on the wooded slopes; occasionally found in the steppes.
Wild rosemary is a half-meter well branched shrub with narrow, oblong, leathery, resembling foliage leaves. Due to the high concentration of essential oils they have a specific scent, a mixture of scents of pine, eucalyptus, lemon and camphor.
A few centuries ago, when rosemary began to use as a spice, began breeding work. The cultivated species is more compact of about 50-70 cm in height.
In our latitudes, root only 2 of them:
- Rosemary prostrate, popularly known as the «garden». Bush spreading, spherical. The plant lends itself well to formation of a trim. So in the southern regions it is often used as a landscaping element. The leaves are thin, delicate; young are bright green, with age, acquire a bluish tint. Main varieties: Corsican, Lavender and Creeping. Flowers, depending on variety, can be purple, blue or purple.
- Rosmarinus officinalis, aka medicinal or fragrant. Stems erect. Outdoors can grow up to 1 meter. Leaves rigid, dark green; quantity of essential oils in them above. This species is more sensitive to conditions of detention. It can be planted in pots or balcony boxes. Flowers can be only purple and lilac, but even white, blue or pink. Popular varieties that delight not only «useful», but a high decorative: Tuscan Blue, Miss Jessopp»s Variety, Roseus, Dewdrop.
With the advent of new varieties of rosemary have ceased to be solely a medicinal plant, and now it appears in gardens and flower beds more often. Growing rosemary outdoors.
The methods and rules of planting rosemary in the open ground
Rosemary can be combined with other plants or planted in a separate group. In temperate regions this plant is used for decorating walls and fences, strengthening and landscaping retaining steps and slopes of the Alpine hills.
Prostrate rosemary looks more impressive, but, unfortunately, does not tolerate winter frost. Sweet, or common rosemary is quite possible to grow as a perennial even in the Leningrad region and the Moscow region, if there is a quality cover.
When planting rosemary, it is important to choose the right place:
- Eliminate areas of stagnation of groundwater and the hollows, which are regularly flooded.
- Preference is given to areas protected from drafts.
- Rosemary does not take root in acidic, heavy soils, especially loams.
With many years of growing bushes in one place, in between leave on two feet; when the annual enough 10 see the Garden begin to prepare for 2 weeks, so the soil has time to settle: dug, make phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.
If necessary, neutralize the soil with dolomite or lime flour. Experienced gardeners prefer the first option because the lime is quickly washed away. So to keep the acidity at the right level not more than a month. Replace loam Chernozem. For loosening heavy soils, use a neutral coconut fiber, rather than the usual peat, which is acidic.
Care rosemary on the plot will not cause trouble ‒ just follow a few simple rules. The correct soil for rosemary – the basis of successful cultivation. Otherwise it is hardy, rarely sick and is not subject to pest attacks.
Rosemary – the plant is drought resistant and does not require abundant watering in the garden. Excess moisture leads to exposure of the stems and death of plants. However, complete drying of soil better to prevent, especially in the heat of summer or the leaves will begin to turn yellow, and the concentration of essential oils in them will decrease. Artificial irrigation will need the bushes immediately after planting until the root system is stronger, and during dry periods in summer. Rest of the rosemary enough natural precipitation. Growing rosemary outdoors.
Hoeing, weeding and fertilizing
One of the conditions for growing rosemary – regular hoeing. The top layer of the earth «podpalivajut» after each watering. So the moisture is kept longer in the ground, and the roots receive the necessary amount of oxygen. During this procedure, remove the weeds, that it is not «muffled» rosemary and took away his nutrients.
When grown in the open ground rosemary almost needs no dressing. When digging for planting introduce complex long-soluble fertilizer, for example, a mixture kalimagnesia and superphosphate.
During the active growing season additionally contribute to the nitrogen nutrition. The concentration is determined according to the instructions on the package. From organic matter it is better to refuse – even at low concentrations it is able to trigger the development of root rot.
The stems of the rosemary grows bare, so it needs regular pruning. The hive begin to form in may. If it is grown as a perennial. The stems are pruned to 3-4 internodes of last year’s growth. In late summer erect types again pruned shoots, leaving not more than 1/3 of the new growth – it helps to «firm up» loose shrub, giving it a beautiful shape. Pruning can be used for breeding.
Prostrate rosemary is not in need of scraps, they spend at will. Like the previous species, it can tolerate the procedure easily lends itself to forming and for creating bonsai. If you have the imagination and skill it is possible to make the balls, pyramids and more complex sculptures. Every 6-7 years the bushes rejuvenate, cutting them almost at the root. Growing rosemary outdoors.
Shelter for the winter
Hibernation is a «weak spot» heat-loving plants. In the middle zone of Russia the prostrate rosemary can survive the winter in the presence of high-quality shelters:
- shoots are pruned to 2/3 of the length;
- mulch the roots with straw or sawdust;
- below the mulch is not blown by the wind, it is covered with branches or twigs;
- construct a dome of thick fabric and polyethylene, tightly locking it from the ground.
In cooler climates, such as in the Urals or Western Siberia even such a shelter will not help the rosemary to survive the winter. The bushes dug up, transplanted into pots and kept until spring in a cool, not above 12 degrees, the room.
The methods and rules of breeding
Rosemary is propagated by seeds or cuttings. You can use methods of cuttings and division of the Bush. But, given the high efficiency of the first two methods, a special need in this.
To grow from seed this spicy culture, need containers, mixed with leaf soil sand and clay. Seed can be purchased in flower shops. If you grow rosemary only as a spice, choose low-growing early maturing varieties, for example, «Tenderness», the leaves of which are usable after 3 months.
Seedlings begin to sow in March:
- The container ½ filled with drainage, placed on top of the soil, abundantly watered.
- Spread seeds at a distance of 1.5—2 cm, cover them with a thin layer of sand, tamped lightly.
- Containers were placed in greenhouse conditions. Often air, preventing condensation.
- If necessary, moisten with a spray bottle, avoiding excessive drying of the upper soil layer.
Shoots appear towards the end of the month. They are gradually weaned from the greenhouse, placed on the South window sills, to prevent extrusion. After 3-4 true leaf dive in a separate container, pinch. In the ground planted when the threat passes the return of frost. Before planting at least a week accustom to new conditions, gradually increasing the time spent on the street. Seedlings of rosemary can be grown in greenhouses and in regions with a warm spring, sow seeds directly into the ground.
Well propagated rosemary from cuttings. Suitable pruning of the young shoots are 5-10 cm lower part of the shoots is released from leaves and is dipped for half an hour in a solution of any stimulator of root formation (Appin, Cornevin, Succinic acid). For rooting cuttings is best to use sand. You can put them in a glass of water. To prevent acidification of the liquid, there was added a small amount of charcoal, for example, a burned match. Growing rosemary outdoors.
Capacity put in a warm, not below 20 degrees, well-lit place, protected from direct sunlight. Cover them with a jar or plastic bag. Greenhouse ventilate several times a day to prevent dripping of condensate on the cuttings. If the roots sprout in water, maintain its constant level. Sand if necessary, moisturize, preventing them from drying out.
Roots appear in 3 weeks, and after 4, when they get stronger, the cuttings are ready for transplanting in pots – outside the immature seedlings will die. Use a mixture of leaf soil and sand, light coconut fiber. After another 2 weeks, pinch out the tops to stimulate the growth of side shoots. Further seedlings as caring for older plants. In a month they can be planted in the open ground.
Grown at the cottage the rosemary is collected in a certain time. The concentration of essential oils in the leaves reaches a peak during flowering or immediately after. In perennial bushes this time is at the end of spring; grown seedling method rosemary blooms in August.
At harvest completely cut off the aboveground part. Shoots are tied in bunches and dried slowly in a dark well-ventilated area. After complete drying of the raw material is ground and placed in storage in a tightly closed glass container. To preserve the useful properties protect it from direct sunlight and humidity.