Cultivation and reproduction of chrysanthemums outdoor
One of the most popular crops for autumn – chrysanthemums. It is used for the decoration of gardens, flower beds and parks, use for a cut. Among the advantages of this plant, in addition to bright and abundant flowering, easy maintenance and resistance to low temperatures.
Chrysanthemum garden, Chinese, or as it is called, shelkovitselistnaya – a group of hybrids of the genus Chrysanthemum, family Asteraceae. In the wild state is not found in nature. First described by Chinese and Japanese breeders, a result of deliberate or spontaneous hybridization with other species of the same genus, mostly chrysanthemums Indian.
The garden chrysanthemum is a herbaceous perennial with erect stems. Their height can vary from 25 cm to one and a half meters. From the dense Central escape diverge more delicate, much branched, the branches thickly covered with leaves stem. The upper part of the leaf plate green, sometimes with silvery sheen, slightly pubescent; lower greyish-green, with abundant pubescence.
Inflorescence – a basket, consists of many small flowers of different sexes. Female, ligulate ‒ three petals, fused at the reduced halo ‒ are located at the edges of the inflorescence. Bisexual, tubular, with a five-petal Corolla and stamens fused, occupy the Central part. «Doubleness» of the buds depends on the ratio of tubular and ligulate flowers.
Blossoms vary in shape, size and color. Terry and large-flowered hybrids seeds are not fastened due to the small number of tubular flowers in a basket.
Currently, several classifications of chrysanthemums. One, common in Asia, predominantly covering the Japanese and Chinese varieties, offers to divide them on the basis of:
- the shape and size of inflorescences;
- the shape and size of the Bush.
The difference between them is not only morphological – chrysanthemum with different buds differ in the timing and nature of flowering, and even the number of chromosomes. In fact, thanks to this feature and most of the cluster of hybrids.
In Russia and Europe perennial varieties of garden chrysanthemums klassificeret as follows:
- The diameter of the inflorescence and flowering.
- small — (2 to 9 cm, bloom bouquet, each flower spike can be formed to 15 buds);
- they grow medium-blossom, 10-15 cm, often tied at 4-5 buds;
- large-flowered or single-headed form on one inflorescence on each stem; its diameter may reach 25 cm.
- Shape and height of the Bush.
- tall, bushes maloboleznennye, up to 1.5 m require supports;
- medium, to 70 cm Bushes more «fluffy», bloom profusely;
- curb, up to 50 cm in height;
- globular is one of the novelties of selection. Feature – the ability to form fluffy neat Bush of rounded, thickly dotted with medium-sized buds.
- The shape of the inflorescence.
- Pompons – a globular form, dominated by female ligulate flowers;
- RemoveAny – women’s petals are large, short and broad, often curved boat, are collected in 2-3 rows;
- Romashkovidnye, single row or double row – inflorescences resemble a Daisy due to the wide center of tubular flowers;
- Semi-double – several rows of boundary of the «petals» are gathered around a small tubular core;
- Terry – female flowers predominate, the Central tube is virtually invisible.
The most popular varieties of spray chrysanthemums:
- Bacardi – a series of tall, up to 1.5 m plants. Stems are strong, the leaves are carved, dark green. Inflorescences are small, 6-7 cm in diameter, romashkovidnye. The Central flowers are yellowish-green, the extreme can be white, cream, yellowish or pinkish.
- Saba – the leaves are thick, with distinct longitudinal grooves. Bush is medium. Petals maroon, with white edges; inflorescence large, up to 10 cm.
- Selebreyt – you’ll be dressy romashkovidnye yellow flowers with a greenish center.
- Grand pink – romashkovidnye variety with vivid pink «petals» and a green heart.
- Chrysanthemum Exopoli – popular plush bouquet is a variety with pink buds.
- Joy, a white spray chrysanthemum with a «stuffed» romashkovidnye buds.
- Stress purple is an exotic large-flowered sort has unusual, deep purple hue with a dark core.
- Cotton – has a pale pink tinge marginal flowers with a greenish yellow center.
- Prada – is an unusual combination of purple petals with a dark green centre.
- Chrysanthemum VIP – Terry inflorescences of this variety attracted the attention of the tonal distribution of colors, from pale pink, almost white at the edges, to dark cherry in the center.
- Stripe – romashkovidnye graceful inflorescence. Regional petals elongated, white with pink netacademy.
- Romans – Terry Foundation «Daisy», color extreme flower gradually turns from pale pink to rich. The core is greenish-yellow.
- Chrysanthemum Santini pompon chrysanthemum with bright green petals.
- Raisa – bright yellow petals with Burgundy netacademy harmony with a broad greenish core.
- Crown yellow Daisy with a green center. Regional petals are thin and elongated, which gives the inflorescence a graceful «fluffiness».
- Grand salmon – grandiflora variety with a rare salmon hue.
- Barca – one of the «stars» of the Dutch selection. Strong, up to 70 cm tall stems crowned by large, Terry inflorescences. The color purple-Burgundy spectrum, the center darker.
- Chrysanthemum Pina colada – the female flowers are white, curved boat; male yellowish.
- COP – medium gustooblistvennye Bush, topped with an abundance of small bright yellow blossoms romashkovidnye.
- Jordi ‒ inflorescence semi-double, exotic color – yellow, red netacademy.
- Serenity ‒ gorgeous semi-double variety with unusual lavender-pink «petals» with foxiewire fantasy streaks and yellow center.
- Chrysanthemum Stylist ‒ similar to the previous variety, but with cherry strokes on a white field.
- Bonita early floriferous variety. Inflorescences up to 6 cm in diameter, white. Each spike is formed at 8-9 buds.
- Stellini ‒ ligulate petals semi-double varieties elongated and sharpened at the edges, which gives it a resemblance to the Astra. Color fantasy – beetroot broad strokes on a soft pink background.
- Memphis dark small-flowered chrysanthemum with a wide and short dark purple ligulate petals.
- Merlot is one of the popular varieties due to a rare deep red color.
- Pasta ‒ fruit flowering, inflorescences of small, double, soft lilac color.
- Chic chrysanthemum ‒ one of the white romashkovidnye varieties; characterized by dark green color of the core.
- Talita ‒ Dutch floriferous (up to 15 buds on each peduncle) hybrid with bicolor, purple-yellow buds.
- Zembla (Baltic sea) – a series of undersized (to 65 cm) of Terry plants white, yellow, greenish or pink shades. One of the most popular varieties – Baltika white.
- The Bontempi ‒ red Daisy with a yellow center.
- Stalion ‒ dwarf (shrub to 35 cm tall) series with yellow, white or lemon flowers.
- Chrysanthemum Optimist – new hybrid anemone, small-flowered, with a green middle. The main color can be white or pink.
- Jordy ‒ medium, up to 70 cm gustooblistvennye Bush, dotted with unusual flowers: ligulate petals elongate, orange, with longitudinal red stripes, the center of the green.
- Veronica ‒ Bush low-growing, up to 50 cm Terry Inflorescences, yellow and white.
- Chrysanthemum Aviator ‒ Terry white anemone blossoms with a green center. The tabs are elongated, bent in the form of «pumps».
- Pink spider (spider pink) – the highlight of the Chinese breeding in recent years. Terry, with long and thin needle-like «petals» saturated pink.
Planting garden chrysanthemums
Chrysanthemum – he is not capricious and hardy to grow it might even green thumb-beginner; but without basic knowledge of rules of farming bushes, as flowering will be scarce. The main trick of growing perennial garden chrysanthemums — planting, or rather, the selection of a suitable site, soil and time.
Recommended planting dates
The best time for planting cuttings and seedlings immediately after the threat passes the return of frost. On average, it’s the middle of spring, but for each region, the terms may differ. In the suburbs, for example, the soil is warm enough in early may; typically in the same period, retreat of the cold. For the Urals planting time is end of may. To plant chrysanthemums, you and autumn, a few weeks before the first frost.
What is the place to define for future flower beds
The bushes need regular, every 3-5 years, a transplant. Chrysanthemum prefers a slightly acidic loamy or sandy loam soils, well-drained, with little organic content. However, she is sensitive to waterlogging, so for landing choose elevated areas or further drained soil.
For full bloom the chrysanthemum needs at least 5 hours of bright sunlight, it should not be shaded by trees or buildings. When planning flowerbeds take into account the width and height of chrysanthemums. High, respectively, planted in the background or in the center. Undersized well suitable for the decoration on the edge. In landscape design chrysanthemum coexists perfectly with the balsams, the Coleus, marigold, asters; advantageous to look at the background of conifers.
Preparation of planting holes
A few weeks before planting dig over the plot, removing the roots of weeds. Since the transplantation of chrysanthemums is done once in 3-5 years in the soil adding a small amount of organic fertilizer so they do not suffer from lack of nutrients. Use only well-rotted compost or manure. It is important to remember that the excessive application of organic chrysanthemum begins to gain fat, mass produce side shoots at the expense of flowering.
The distance between the holes, depending on the size of the class, doing from 10 to 25 cm Depth of hole – 50-60 cm Before planting them necessarily drain gravel or expanded clay, placed in the bottom of a small quantity of sand. Instead of holes you can dig a trench the same depth.
For spring planting chrysanthemums choose a cloudy day. The seedlings are soaked in a solution of Alpin or Kornevina. Planting holes liberally sprinkled. The bushes are arranged so that the stem base was not below ground level, otherwise they will rot.
Landing covered with earth, lightly tamped and watered again. Right after the seedlings get off in growth, they pinch out the growing point – this speeds up the rooting process, promotes the formation of a strong root system and lush Bush. Planting chrysanthemums in the fall is carried out on the same principle.
How to care for the season
The care of garden chrysanthemum, even for beginners – with the right fit and a well-chosen place, it grows by itself. However, if you want to achieve from the Bush maximum impact, you need to know several rules and secrets of nursing.
Rules of watering and any supplements
Chrysanthemum not tolerate excess moisture and waterlogging of the soil. But leave it for the entire season without irrigation is also impossible – in this case, the stems quickly trevisanut, Bush loses appeal, reduced the number of colors.
Chrysanthemum watered moderately, without allowing complete drying and cracking of the soil. After watering the ground loosened, to prevent the formation of a «crust». To reduce the frequency of watering and protect roots from the heat is possible by means of mulching.
Several times during the season, the plants are fertilized with mineral fertilizers that allows to increase the quality and duration of flowering. In the spring, 2-3 weeks after planting, make nitrogen fertilizers, such as nitrate or urea, at the rate of 30 g per m
2. In July and August, the plants are fertilized with a mixture of phosphorus (20 g) and potassium fertilizer (15 g).
How to shape the Bush
The correct formation of the Bush is an important stage in the cultivation of chrysanthemums. Pinch out the seedlings immediately after rooting, usually over 8-10 leaves, then begin to actively develop side shoots. Have big chrysanthemums they are removed, leaving only a few of the most strong, which in turn also pinch. From small-statured varieties of the first «wave» of laterals leave to form a more lush Bush.
Adult chrysanthemum continually produces shoots-the shoots from the axils of the leaves. Since mid-June, they are deleted every week – otherwise all the resources she will «waste» their development at the expense of flowering. Even well-formed tall varieties will need props – take care to install them in advance so as not to break the already overgrown bushes.
The formation of the chrysanthemum continues in the flowering period. After Bud first kroon buds are removed to stimulate the development of ovaries of the second order. Usually it is because they formed the most beautiful flowers. The ovary of the third order often do not have time to ripen, so they are partially removed.
Autumn work in the flower garden
Preparation for winter begins in September and to increase the hardiness of the bushes they feed phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Bushes of chrysanthemums in autumn often bloom until frost. After the first frost of the aerial part of chrysanthemum cut, even if the stems still have buds, leaving 10-15 cm
To help your chrysanthemums survive winter, their Spud, covered with layer of leaves or straw, cover the top with branches. Carefully mulched grandiflora, they are more thermophilic. Some varieties for the winter have to dig out and carry to the cellar or other premises, where the temperature will not fall below 0.
To propagate chrysanthemums, despite its vitality, is not easy. For this use the seeds, cuttings or delenki. The first method is used mainly for breeding purposes, as the seeds from most varieties did not have time to ripen for the winter.
The seed method
Seeds are sown in may, after the series return of frost. They are placed in holes or furrows at a distance of 10 cm; fall asleep a small layer of earth, tamped. For watering plantings use a little bit of warm water so the seeds do not rot. Then cover with a film to create a greenhouse effect. After the first germs it off. When the seedlings grow up to 7 cm and form a second pair of true leaves, they were thinned, removing the weakest.
To grow seedlings can be in portable containers: they are filled with a mixture of leaf soil and peat (1:1), at the bottom of the drainage stack. Seeds are planted in the same way as in the first method, watered, covered with glass or plastic and keep in a warm place until the seedlings. Dive in to individual containers after the appearance of the 4-5 true leaf.
How to root cuttings
For rooting use the side shoots or apical cuttings length less than 6 cm Cut them preferably in the spring or summer, autumn is more prone to decay. For rooting the landless use a mixture of peat, perlite and sand (1:2:1).
Before planting the cuttings for a few hours soaked in a solution of Alpin or Kornevina. Boarding capacity filled with a mixture, on the bottom put drainage. The cuttings at a 45 degree angle, buried up to the first leaf buds. The lower leaves are removed. Landing put on a well-lit place, do not cover; do not give the soil completely dry, but not flooded. At a temperature of 15-18 degrees, the roots appear in 3-4 weeks. After the cuttings take off in growth, they are planted in a separate container or open ground.
How to split a hive
The division of the Bush – the most effective way to propagate garden chrysanthemum. The procedure is combined with the spring change. Overgrown bushes over 3 years digging up and shake the roots from the soil. With a sharp knife or secateurs are divided into several parts so that each had a few growing points and roots. Caring for delinkage the same as for normal seedlings. They bloom in the same year.
Diseases and pests of perennial chrysanthemums
Among the most common diseases of chrysanthemums in the first place fungal, caused by excess moisture. For example, mildew, which manifests itself in the form of whitish coating on leaves and stems. At the first sign of the affected part is removed. All plants, even those that look healthy, a few times treated with systemic fungicides, for example, Fundazol.
Gray mold can be identified by watery brownish spots on the flowers or stems. The leaves are sometimes affected by Septoria leaf spot – they turn brown and fall off. When you see the leaves yellowish-green stains we are talking about rust. Anthracnose, one of the most dangerous diseases affecting not only the aboveground portion and roots, whereby they are covered with black spots. The algorithm of actions in each of these diseases is the same as in the first case.
Sometimes mums can suffer from viral diseases of aspermia or patchiness. All affected plants are dug and burned. Attack chrysanthemums and pests: aphids, thrips, spider mites. For insect control use any systemic insecticides – usually just 2-3 treatments. To get rid of the tick will help the acaricides. Treatment important carried out at a temperature not above 25 degrees in the evening in calm weather. Depending on the air temperature, the interval between sprayings can vary from 4 to 7 days.
Problems when growing
The most common problems when growing chrysanthemums – the lack of flowering and drying the leaves. To understand why it does not bloom chrysanthemum, is quite simple. The reason may be the failure of the basic rules of farming: badly chosen place to land, poor irrigation or lack of phosphorus and potassium. The number of ovaries may be reduced due to adverse weather conditions – cold protracted spring or wet summer.
If you dry the leaves of chrysanthemums, note, there are no signs of lesions fungal diseases; if so, to urgently take the appropriate action. The same consequences may result and insufficient irrigation.