Crop rotation for annual flowers
Traditionally, the rotation of plants select for vegetables and herbs. But in the ornamental garden it would be good time to think about the rules of changing plants. Especially careful should be with annual flowers, because many of my favorite flowering annuals quite whimsical. Rules of selection of preceding and subsequent crops for flowers-annuals are very simple and are based mainly on the relationship of plants. To observe them in practice is much easier than in the case of vegetables in the garden.
Factors determining the crop rotation of the annuals
For ornamental plants the rules of crop rotation smart rotation, neighbourhood and separation plants are not built according to the same laws as for vegetable crops. In the vegetable garden crop rotation often is critical, and its principles, laws and guidelines are among the strictest. With flowers all slightly different.
For all decorative annual plants, the crop rotation is constructed in such a way as to prevent two main problems:
- the risk of cross-pollination, loss of varietal purity;
- distribution of pests and diseases.
The first factor of importance only in collecting their own seeds, self-seeding or breeding experiments. But plant health is the main reason for strict adherence to crop rotation. Planting the same annuals in the same place, and re-seeding of annuals in single soil without a break for many years, may result in the accumulation of pathogenic elements that the young plants will not survive. Loss of crops and plantings, the degeneration of the favorite varieties, or species – the risk is too great to ignore.
For any annual crop rotation «calculate» easily enough: unlike vegetables, the alternation of plants is determined by rather obvious options:
- belonging to the same family;
- of stability or instability to disease and pests.
Any «community» and the similarity is a reason to separate the plants and not plant them next to one another on one and the same place. Conversely, the differences for any characteristics allow the use of plants as precursors to the more whimsical types, or followed them.
If you want to avoid problems with the spread of pests and diseases, to always achieve the maximum disclosure of varietal characteristics for all annuals, with the exception of «nurses» and legumes, should adhere to the General rule is to return them to the same place again not earlier than after 5 years. You can repeat the same «five-year» scheme, and change culture arbitrarily.
To avoid confusion in the procedure for planting, you should keep records for individual flower beds, perennial borders and other planting. Annual plans and small notes about the results will help to avoid errors in the rotation of annual flowers. It is especially difficult to remember all the details and priority for large flower beds with lots of types. For long-term planning and fast preparation of such sketches, diaries of a crop rotation of annuals – the best assistants.
Basic strategy crop rotation of annual flowers
There are three main strategies of the organization of crop rotation of annual flowers:
- The alternation of annuals – the change of the capricious types of plants-nurses or enrich the soil with nitrogen species.
- A rotation of annuals with a perennial, biennial or bulbous plants.
- Change the annuals of vegetables, herbs, grasses or green manure crops.
If the traditional strategies of crop rotation are not suitable or the soil is severely depleted, in need of rehabilitation or improvement of texture, the soil after the annuals can be left «fallow» for a year with herbicides, biological preparations, application of organic and mineral soil-forming fertilizer and repeated cultivation.
Perfect «mate» for Moody annual flowers
Most famous for their sensitivity to sowing and planting seedlings on one and the same place — garden asters. That these beautiful annual flowers need to be constantly moved around the garden, is known to every experienced gardener. Without rotation of the asters become extremely vulnerable to Fusarium, and the whole collection of varieties it is possible to lose at the stage of budding.
Asters do not return to their former place for 5-6 (or more) years, they are often replaced carnations (the «scheme» and can be sown sweet pea, gillyflower, calendula, snapdragons), marigold (a nasturtium, a zinnia, escholtzia).
But not only asters are in need of replacements. Godetia, balsams, marigolds, Lobelia are just a few species, which strictly follow the rotation.
Ideal candidates for interleaving with any plant is to determine just. Among the huge range of annuals are plants that you can use to alternate with more Moody types and recovery of soil and the proper organization of the crop rotation in the flower beds of annuals.
«Bearers» of the soil to suppress pathogens and disputes, improve the soil, improve the microflora and stimulate the biological environment. Usually they are planted before and after other plants, literally interspersing their favorite annual flowers.
The annuals-medics are:
- annual Phlox;
Special group consists of ornamental plants of the Legume family that can be compared in its effects to the green manure, enriching the soil with nitrogen. Fiery green beans, peas, pimento, annual lupins are rightly considered universal types to cycle through, and you can include them in the rotation with any plants. They are especially effective for depleted soil.
Perennial, biennial and other alternatives to the alternation of annuals
Replace herbaceous perennials to annuals, and Vice versa can be called only conditionally rotation. The capricious and rapidly degenerating perennials, for example, carpet Phlox, tall fescue or plant require dividing a frequency of 2-3 years. In place of the divided plants can safely for one year to plant any annuals, then replacing them with more permanent plants.
In crop rotation with annuals, you can enable and biennials. They are well interspersed with plants, orderlies, and whimsical flowers like asters. Turkish carnation, Pansy, Foxglove, daisies, honesty, forget-me-not – all, without exception, perennial species are suitable. However, their use alone is impractical because of the vacant lots.
Seedlings of pansies and For use with bulbs that require annual digging after flowering, for example, with varietal tulips. Planting tulips in autumn, and in may, – seedlings of biennials, you can effectively use all of the available space. And biennials, and bulbs can be used as a separate, non-combined types, interleaved with a whimsical annuals.
Any annual flowers excellent alternate with annual vegetables. It employs the principle of reverse: vegetables excellent alternate with annuals-nurses, and any annuals – vegetable plantings. Planted on the plots, vacant after the annual color and favorite salads, radishes, greens to the table. The best effect on the soil have legumes and leafy vegetables.
If you decide to give the soil a rest, do not have to resort to the strategy of the empty flower beds. In place of annuals a few times during the season you can sow green manures — mustard and Lupin to oats and rye, which will allow to achieve a dramatic improvement in the quality of the soil.
Sites infected plants require special attention
If any of the annuals were affected by pests or diseases, is on next year’s schedule of planting only crops-nurses. They contribute to the improvement of the soil, releasing volatile. You can generally leave the site empty for soil improvement.
In place of the crops affected by Fusarium, it is better not to plant any prone to this disease annual species, primarily asters. Protected amazingly thick cover, the spores of Fusarium survives in the soil, in spite of any frost, for the past 4-5 years.
With a favorable «atmosphere» they affect new plants through the roots. Infection beginning to see is not so simple: longitudinal stripes at the base of the stems only after some time, «complemented» by a yellowing and Curling of lower leaves.