Carnations perennial in the garden, planting and care
When planning flower beds, growers prefer he is not capricious plants with a long flowering period. For example Dianthus caryophyllus. It goes well with most colors, fitting into any composition, does not require significant maintenance and easily propagated.
The term «clove garden» refers to a vast group of plants belonging to the family Caryophyllaceae. Most of them is a perennial flowering herb that came from the Mediterranean. Some were bred artificially by hybridization. In our latitudes is grown as an annual or biennial plant.
Garden carnation grows as a shrub; shoots are branched, thin, their height reaches 60 cm, the lower part can age to DriveSpace, which makes carnation-like shrub. Leaves entire, linear or linear-lanceolate, pointed at the tip, oppositely arranged, green, sometimes covered with a glaucous bloom. The root system is shallow, poorly developed. The flowers can be solitary, 5-6 cm in diameter, or aggregated in cymes. The shape and color of the halo depends on the variety. Summer flowering, some species continues until Oct.
A variety of types
In landscape design the garden carnation harmonious both group and solo compositions. Some varieties are even suitable for Alpine gardens and rockeries; they are planted along the curb and dry streams. Often the garden carnation is grown in mixed borders to the vacated after the early bulbous areas. Large-flowered kinds can be based on the floral arrangements, especially surrounded by greenery or on the background of conifers. Such universality is possible only thanks to the existence of a large number of varieties.
Herbaceous perennial, common in Ukraine, in Belarus and most of Russia; it is found even in Siberia and the far East. In nature often settles on sandy soils along rivers or forest edges, found along roads. Bushes are compact, approximately 25 cm in height. Leaves small, narrowly linear, dark green. Flowers small with fringed petals white, pinkish or purplish. Blooms mostly in summer, may re-throw the buds in early autumn. On the basis of this variation created many groundcover varieties with bright color and different flowering periods.
This variety is easily identified by the fluffy, stocky and wide bushes with a height up to 25 cm Leaves medium-sized, narrowly lanceolate, glaucous-green. Petals notched, crimped, mostly a pinkish, purplish, reddish tones. The first wave of flowering occurs in June–July, the second at the end of August. In natural conditions it prefers to settle in the mountainous areas on limestone rocks. Occurs in the Alps, the mountains of Slovenia, Italy and Austria. In horticulture used for design of the Alpine hills, dry streams and rockeries.
Dianthus barbatus, the bearded she – one of the most common types. Is unpretentious, bright, plentiful and long flowering, pronounced «clove» aroma. In nature it prefers to settle on rocky slopes at forest edges or along pebble-strewn river beds.
This herbaceous perennial is easily identified by its rounded glaucous stems, and lanceolate rough leaves. Inflorescence corymbose, up to 12 cm in diameter. Color bright, contrast, decorated in white, pink and red, up to dark Burgundy, shades. The petals are bi-color or tri-color, often with a border.
Dianthus barbatus blooms in the second year; grown as a biannual. Easily renewed from seed. Each year there are many varieties, which differ in the shape of petals, Terry, color, size shrub and flowers and even smell.
Knapp is different from the rest of carnations bright yellow petals. Rare. The shape and smell of the inflorescence similar to a carnation Turkish. Compact bushes, up to 35 cm tall; shoots and leaves greyish-green. Knapp carnation is grown as a biennial, blooms the second year from July to August. Frost-resistant, but extremely intolerant to waterlogging. In nature it is found only in Romania and Hungary.
Dianthus caryophyllus Chabot is one of the grandiflora varieties, often grown for cutting. Flowers solitary, up to 7 cm in diameter, double or semi-double; corrugated with deeply lobed petals pinkish, yellowish or reddish tints. Blooms from mid summer until frost. The root system, in contrast to most stud, stem, strong. Shoots can reach up to 60 cm Leaves are opposite, linear, bluish-green, up to 12 cm in length.
The species bred artificially and not found in nature. Cultivated widely used not only in Amateur, but in the industrial gardening for landscaping parks and recreation areas. It has many cultivars and hybrids differing in form and color of petals.
Is a neat compact shrub to 30 cm carnation pinnate Leaves are bright green, with distinct longitudinal veins, which gives them a resemblance to feathers. Flowers medium-sized, up to 3 cm, fringed with a lobed edge. The range of color is wide. The buds are revealed EN masse during June—July. In nature it prefers calcareous soils of the European foothills.
Farmed species. Blossom is abundant and long, from early summer until frost, in greenhouses knits buds all year round. Has industrial value, mass is grown on the slice. Shoots a dense, rounded, reaching 80 cm in height. The flowers are double or semi-double, often single. Derived many varieties with different color petals, decorated in white, reddish, pinkish, cream shades.
Carnation Chinese, or, as it is called, Amur, grows mainly in Siberia, Primorye and the far East on sandy or pebbly slopes, found in meadows. Reaches a height of 40-45 cm Shoots well branched; leaves lanceolate, acuminate. Flowers to 2.5 cm, can be pinkish, white, purple, mauve or red.
A biennial, but blooms the first year, from June until the end of August. Carnation China applies to winter-hardy varieties. Based on it displayed a few popular hybrid series, the most famous of which is Dianthus caryophyllus, Liliput. Its dwarf bushes can grow even on windowsills. There are different colors among which white, reddish, pinkish, Carmine; sold usually as a mix of seeds.
Planting clove seedlings and follow-up care
Although Dianthus caryophyllus is a perennial plant, planting and caring for it is easier for growing seedlings. Seeds can be purchased in specialized shops or build it yourself (except the hybrids of the first generation). The seed material preferably soak for a day in a growth stimulator, for example, succinic acid or Epinay. Best time is in early March.
The fit is performed as follows:
- In containers make drainage holes, put a layer of clay pellets or shredded foam.
- Fill with a mixture of leaf soil, lowland peat and sand. Horse is not used because of high acidity. Peat can substitute shredded coconut fiber.
- The substrate is moistened, prepare a shallow groove.
- The seeds are laid at a distance of 0.5 cm, sprinkle a thin layer of sand, slightly compacted.
- The crops are moistened again from a spray placed in greenhouse conditions.
- At a temperature of 18-20 ° shoots begin to hatch within a few weeks.
- Until the shelter is removed, place the containers in a brightly lit spot without direct sunlight.
It is important to prevent the drying of the substrate, at the same time not flooding it – seedling carnations susceptible to the disease black leg. Watering in the morning, being careful not to get a jet on seedlings. Water is used at a distance, slightly warmed; once a week I replace it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Dive in separate containers in the same ground mixture in phase two true leaves. The temperature was lowered to 15-16 degrees, providing bright light, so the seedlings are not stretched. Two weeks after picking the pinch out seedlings start to fertilize.
Site selection and soil preparation for the cultivation of perennial carnations
Proper planting garden pinks – the key to its successful cultivation. It prefers well-lit areas with a moderate amount of direct sunlight. Some species such as Dianthus deltoides, or Chinese, tolerate light partial shade.
Garden carnation survives better in neutral or slightly alkaline soils, air permeable, with a small amount of sand. Some, for example, carnation pinnate, are particularly sensitive to increased acidity and die without additional liming. However, most species grow well on ordinary garden topsoil or loam. The only thing the garden carnation can not adapt stagnation of moisture, so it is not planted in the lowlands, and the soil is well drained.
A few weeks before transplanting soil dug with a bayonet spade, pick the weeds. Parallel make-rotted compost, dolomite flour or lime; if necessary, peat and sand.
Transplanting in the open ground
Seedlings planted in open ground after the ground has warmed to 15 degrees. To establish this point, following the blooming of the Apple tree. More precise timing is determined on the basis of the climatic characteristics of the region – if there is a threat of the return of frost, with the air better to wait.
For a few days to prepare planting holes: on the bottom of a stack of sand and drainage, watering. The depth of the hole should be such that the seedlings had not to bury, but the root system were completely under the ground. The distance between them is set based on the size of the class. Undersized, such as Liliput, put in 15-30 cm from each other, for tall withdrawn at 40-50 cm.
Seedlings within a few weeks harden, gradually increasing the time spent outdoors. For planting choose a cloudy day. Seedlings are carefully removed from the containers, taking care not to damage the root system. Placed, not shaking the ground ball in the hole, covered with soil, compacted and watered abundantly. For several weeks, until the seedlings will not take root, it is not desirable to prevent the drying out of the soil.
Planting seeds in open ground
Garden carnation can be grown from seeds directly outdoors. Basically prepare the soil in advance, as well as for seedlings. Organic matter, rotted even, made only in the fall. Just before planting it can be replaced with mineral fertilizers, for example, nitroammophoska.
Seeds begin to be sown in early may in shallow furrows, prisypaya them with a thin layer of sand. After sowing, gently tamped and watered, taking care not to wash them with a hose. Before the emergence of the first shoots covered with foil, then remove it. The crops of cloves well tolerate low temperatures, but with the threat of the return of frost to insulate them better film or agrotextile.
After the seedlings grow up and produce 3-4 true leaves they were thinned or planted in a permanent place.
Garden carnation he is not capricious and easy to «give in» even novice gardeners. Each species has its own characteristics of planting and care perennial carnation Turkish and Chinese, for example, are considered the most hardy, cloves Chabot, on the contrary, more demanding. The basic rules of farming for all species is the same.
Watering and fertilizing
Dianthus caryophyllus needs regular but moderate watering. Young bushes are watered once a week. Adults are mostly enough natural rainfall, in a drought they are watered a few times a month. After watering the ground around the bushes loosened.
Care for a carnation garden requires regular fertilizing. A couple of weeks after planting in the open ground the plants are fertilized complex additives with a predominance of nitrogen, for example, NPK. In late may and early September, fertilized with a high content of phosphorus and potassium. Make sure that the mixture does not contain chlorine.
Annual garden carnation good branching. For the formation of a lush Bush once pinched her at the time of picking. Summer care is reduced to the removal of withered flowers. Perennial carnations are additionally pruned after flowering, leaving the «stumps» at 10 cm.
Preparing for winter
Carnation perennial tolerates frost. In autumn the bushes are trimmed and Spud. The ground around mulched with sawdust, straw or fallen leaves. Below the mulch is not fanned by the wind, it «crushed» branches.
Methods of reproduction
Basic, the fastest and most effective, method of reproduction garden carnation seed. Most species, except hybrids of the first generation, easily resume from the collected self-seeds. If desired perennial carnations can be propagated by cuttings, rooting cuttings, or dividing the Bush.
The shoot cuttings in early summer. For rooting suitable young shoots length of 10 cm and without stems. Cut obliquely at a leaf node, removing the lower leaves. Along the extreme internodes make a shallow cut. Rooted in pure sand under greenhouse conditions. The roots appear after 3-4 weeks. By the middle of August the cuttings are ready for transplanting to a permanent place. In the fall they have time to get stronger enough to survive the winter.
Layering garden carnation is propagated in the following way:
- On one of the lower shoots make longitudinal incisions from one internodes to another.
- Dropwise «damaged» parts of the shoots, tying them in the ground.
- When from the extreme internodes start to grow lateral stems, nucleus is ready for the transplant.
Division multiply only two types of garden pinks, Turkish and Dutch. The procedure is carried out in the spring, before the Bush lay the buds, or in autumn after flowering. Clove dug out of the ground, being careful not to damage the roots, cut into several pieces so that each stayed for 3 points of growth and the developed roots. Delenki planted in a permanent place and care for them, as for seedlings.
Diseases and pests
The garden carnation is little subject to the attacks of pests. In dry weather the plants can settle aphids or spider mites. In the first case, to get rid of parasites will help systemic insecticides, for example, Akhtar. With a low level of infection only two treatments. From ticks to get harder. The affected bushes 3-4 times with an interval of a week are treated with acaricides, for example, Necronom. All treatments carried out in the evening in calm weather.
Excessive moisture garden carnation may be affected by root rot, rust and other fungal diseases.
With the appearance of a damp dark spots on the leaves, rotting of the buds and withering of the bushes as follows:
- Damaged plants are removed.
- The remaining 2-3 times treated with systemic fungicides, such as Topaz or Fundazol.
To prevent fungal diseases before the prolonged rains landing you can process biological fungicides, for example, Phytosporin.